It is only when these steps are taken that African nations and other LDC can apply nanotechnology innovatively to improve the quality of life of her citizens, thus enabling local industries and businesses to strive for sustainability and competitiveness in today's global business setting. The emphasis is on PPP and networking through responsible development and regulatory framework by all government ministries, agencies, and stakeholders. We are calling on the laboratories of the developed countries and the BRIC to urgently take up these challenges of the developing countries if our dream of global integration is to be real.
The time for this assistance is now. ICE carried out the extensive survey via internet and drafted the manuscript, POO formulated the topic and participated in formatting and proof reading of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Our appreciation goes to Biomed Central and Springer Open waivers for granting waiver on the processing charges for this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nanoscale Res Lett v. Nanoscale Res Lett. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Ikechukwu C Ezema: moc.
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Received Jan 6; Accepted Mar 7. Abstract It is a known fact that the progress and development of different nations of the world is strongly connected with the type of materials under their use. Review Introduction Transformation in the materials world has been the bane of technological advancement worldwide as such human existence from generation to generation has been characterized by different materials under their use. Nanotechnology programs of nations - initiatives and strategies A survey published by Allianz [ 10 ] indicates that many countries have developed their nanotechnology programs up to some levels.
Current research and development empowerment nations Discussion on the implications of nanotechnology is going on well among developing countries. Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology for Africa and LDC The evolution of nanotechnology is at its early stage globally, and Cozzens et al.
Lessons for Africa and LDC - the nanotechnology way forward Various lessons can be learnt from this discussion on nanotechnology initiatives for African nations and other LDC, which they can adopt as practical steps to establish a robust nanotechnology program in their country.
Responsible Approach To Nanotechnology
These lessons include but not limited to the following: 1. Conclusions Nanotechnology is the material transformation, advancement, and development of our time. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interest. Authors' contributions ICE carried out the extensive survey via internet and drafted the manuscript, POO formulated the topic and participated in formatting and proof reading of the manuscript. Acknowledgements Our appreciation goes to Biomed Central and Springer Open waivers for granting waiver on the processing charges for this manuscript.
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Responsible Approach To Nanotechnology
Nanotubes and nanowires. Congressional Research Service Accessed 5 September Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes: a systematic report. Elsevier: Nanomed. Cloaked carbon nanotechnology become non toxic. NewScientist Health. Study reveals that carbon nanotubes have no toxic effects on green algae.
Accessed 6 August European Commission. Accessed 3 August June 7—8, Accessed 30 June Review of international nanotechnology developments and policy concerns: capability, governance and nanotechnology development: a focus on India. Accessed 1 August Nanotechnology and the millennium development goals: water, energy, and agri-food. J Nanopart Res.
Nanotechnology What is nanotechnology. Observatory NANO. Sergeant JF. Congressional Research Services. Accessed 9 September National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop. Oklahoma City; Accessed 29 September Bai C. Progress of nanoscience and nanotechnology in China. Nanotechnology and biotechnology in China.
Chubais A. The ETC. Developers Dialog. Trends in world commodity trade: enhancing African's competitiveness and generating commodity gains. Will Prince Charles et al diminish the opportunity of developing countries in nanotechnology? Babajide A. Nanotechnology in a developing country — application and challenges.
Technical Manager Nanoforum. Should scientists be held responsible for the fruits of their research? This question must not be taken lightly. Science has reshaped--even redefined--every aspect of our lives, including family, politics, death, trade, and psychology. It is tempting to say that such a powerful force must be managed and controlled, and those who wield it must do so with caution and humility.
It is tempting, and seems at first quite suitable, to insist that scientists consider the consequences of their work, and restrict their own research in order to prevent new and horrific excesses. If they don't, the obvious alternative is to regulate science from outside. However, both of these solutions can easily cause new problems, and must be applied with care.
In some cases, each solution is appropriate. In other instances, either "solution" will do more harm than good. Radioactivity and X-rays were discovered within a year of each other--X-rays in and radioactivity in In , long before the term "science fiction" was invented, H.
Science, Nanotechnology, and Responsibility
Wells included a "death ray" in War of the Worlds. Surely X-rays would have been a prime candidate for scientific caution, even more so than radioactivity. However, a cautious approach to X-rays would merely have delayed their medical applications. It was radioactivity, and not X-rays, that led to the atomic bomb. X-rays found a use in medicine as a diagnostic tool, and when radium was discovered in , it was used to cure cancer.
The atomic bomb would not become even a theoretical possibility until , when uranium fission was discovered by German scientists. This paper provides a brief overview of the problems and benefits created by nanotechnology, and substantiates the claim that a variety of ethical systems will be necessary to deal appropriately with the range of issues raised by nanotech. It begins by discussing the power of nanotechnology as a technology, then surveys the risks, commercial opportunities, and abundance that may be created by nanotech, and concludes by restating the need for the deliberate development of collaboration between diverse organizations with radically different ethics.
Nanotechnology, peace and security: don’t be naïve
The atomic bomb is the archetypal example of irresponsible science. Scientists, engineers, and technicians worked for years to produce a weapon of terrible destructive force.
According to Richard Feynman, at the outset of the project everyone was convinced that it was necessary to develop a bomb before Nazi Germany could do so. When Germany was defeated, most of them never questioned whether the project should continue: "There was, however, I think, an error in my thought in that after the Germans were defeated I didn't stop; I didn't even consider that the motive for originally doing it was no longer there. Teller, by contrast, went on to develop the hydrogen bomb, and remains convinced that his work has reduced wartime death.
Science, Nanotechnology, and Responsibility
Perhaps if Feynman and others had joined Oppenheimer we would not have seen the Arms Race and the Cold War, and the current risk of Indian, Pakistani, and terrorist use of atomic weapons. On the other hand, the Soviet Union might have developed the bomb unilaterally and used it to subjugate Europe and America; Stalin would likely have killed tens of millions of people in the new Soviet territories, as he did in Siberia. With the Soviet and Nazi scientists subject to the coercive demands of their governments, it cannot be argued with certainty that Western scientists were wrong to develop it.
But let's assume that the A-bomb was a bad thing to develop.